According to British History online there were three houses in Lower Heyford licensed as Ale Houses in 1735. The Red Lion, The White Horse and the Bell.
The Red Lion was known by that name in 1784 when the names were given in the Victualler Recognizances kept in Oxford Record Office. In 1789 The Red Lion was being kept by a George COGGINS (as yet no known family connection). This was the only reference to George COGGINS keeping the pub. A John COGGINS  was then listed at the Red Lion between 1791 and 1822 when the of the fourth volume of Victualler Recognizances QSD/V4 end.
The book lists the people who stood surety to the innkeeper, often innkeepers stood for others in their area so in 1818, for example, Robert ABRAHAMS of the Three Horseshoes Upper Heyford stood for John COGGINS and John stood for Robert. Interestingly one of the people standing surety for John in 1820 was Benjamin COGGINS.
Benjamin COGGINS  is the son of John, who was baptised in Lower Heyford February 17th 1796.
The Oxford Journal of 28 August 1824 has an advert about John’s estate -
Mr. John Coggins, deceased.
ALL persons who have any claim or demand on the Estate and Effects of Mr. JOHN COGGINS late of Lower Heyford, Oxon. Victualler and coal merchant, deceased, are requested to deliver in particulars of their respective debts to Mr. Benj. Coggins, of lower Heyford aforesaid (son of the deceased by whom the business will be carried on as usual); Mr Isaac Prentice of Alderbury.or Mr.Stephen Holloway, solicitor, Bicester. In order that the same may be investigated and discharged: and all persons indebted to the said Mr. John Coggins at his decease are requested to pay the amount of their respective debts to the said Mr Coggins the son, Mr. Prentice or Mr. Holloway.
Bicester August 12 1824.
On the censuses for 1841 and 1851 Benjamin COGGINS  was the Victualler at the Red Lion and in the History, Gazetteer & Directory of Oxfordshire 1852, Robert Gardner lists Benjamin COGGINS at the Red Lion.
Then there are strangely two entries in the 1854 PO Directory for Richard Coggins.
Coggins Richard, White Horse
Coggins Richard, Red Lion, coal & corn merchant & Farmer
Only one Richard COGGINS has been found in the Heyfords on 1851 and 1861 censuses. Was he moving from one pub to the other? Or did he own both pubs and use managers to run either or both?
Richard COGGINS  appears to have connections with all three Lower Heyford pubs. Later we outline his complex interests in the three pubs of Lower Heyford.
He was definitely living at the Red Lion when he married his second wife in 1859 as reported in the Oxfordshire Telegraph 9 March 1859
Recently in London, Mr Richard Coggins of the Red Lion Inn, Lower Heyford to Mrs.Pearson widow of the late Mr.George King Pearson, farmer of Upper Heyford.
In 1861 Lewis John COGGINS  aged 19 was a Victualler, Coal & Timber Dealer with 10 acres and employing 4 men at the Red Lion and his sister Louisa  was the housekeeper. Their father Richard  and stepmother are on a farm in Upper Heyford.
The Dutton, Allen & Co’s Directory & Gazetteer of the Counties of Oxon, Bucks... for 1863 lists in Lower Heyford
“Coggins, Richard, Red Lion, coal and corn merchant,and farmer”.
It appears that Richard’s son in law, Thomas TURBITT (husband of Louisa) was managing the pub while Richard held its licence in 1864 as in the report about the Heyford Village Harvest Home which appeared in Oxford Chronicle for 10 September 1864.
“The dinner was provided by Mr T TURBITT of the RED LION, and Mr W SMITH of the BELL, and included substantial dishes of roast and boiled beef and mutton, rich plum puddings, etc. And was served in a manner which reflected the greatest credit upon the respective hosts”.
At the Harvest Home 150 men and women sat down for the dinner. Diarist George James DEW also gives an account of the event in his entry for Sept 7.
Richard is again keeping the pub in 1866 as can be seen from this report from the Oxford Times 7 July 1866
Brandy Stealing at Lower Heyford
Caleb Brock, labourer was indicted for stealing six quarts of Brandy at Lower Heyford the property of Richard Coggins. Mr. Gough instructed by Mr Lindsey prosecuted, Mr. Jenner instructed by Mr F.B. Thompson was for the defence. The prosecutor who keeps the Red Lion Inn at Lower Heyford, stated they were cleansing and whitewashing the cellar and prisoner was there. Left the prisoner in the spirit cellar at four o'clock, and gave him eight jars, two had brandy in and the rest contained other kinds of spirit. The prisoner asked for money and he gave him his wages. P.C. Webb took the prisoner into custody. He said nothing. His statement before the Magistrates was read by Mr. Davenport. The counsel for the defence designated this a paltry prosecution. Guilty four calendar months' imprisonment with hard labour.
1876 Richard is listed in the Harrod & Coy directory, at the Red Lion, but he is a farmer living in Upper Heyford on the 1871 and 1881 censuses. Was he the Inn's owner with managers running it for him?
Thomas Hewin TURBITT  married Louisa Julia COGGINS in 1863 and it appears that he took over the pub. He died and was buried on Dec 24 1869. Dew wrote ‘His end is another illustration of the dangers & sad effects of drinking.’ He may have still been managing the pub at the time of his death, as the widowed Louisa was still the housekeeper living at the Red Lion in 1871. Often the widow of a publican continued to run the pub after her husband's death.
George COGGINS  son of George  the Parish Clerk of Middleton Stoney was listed in Dutton, Allen & Co’s directory & gazetteer of the counties of Oxon, Bucks... for 1863 as a “baker and mealman”. He was involved with a married woman in 1867 and Dew wrote in his diary about the way the villagers made their disapproval known by treating him to “Rough Music”. At that time he was described as a “Drunkard” so it was surprising to find that in 1881 he was the landlord of the Red Lion. In 1881 he is not mentioned as a publican but was a Corn & coal merchant’s clerk but his house was next to Ivy House as was the Red Lion in 1891. The applications for licences in the quarter sessions need to be found to see if he was in fact also the landlord in 1881. Dew’s diaries show how the people of the area held more than one job at a time for example his own father was a builder, carpenter, timber merchant, grocer, baker and post master and they entered what they considered their principle occupation on the census returns.
There is not much information about the Bell, it was certainly known by that name in 1784 when the names were given in the Victualler Recognizances kept in Oxford Record Office.
Richard COGGINS appears to be there in July 1859 as reported in the Oxfordshire Telegraph of 16 July 1859
“A SANITARY MOVEMENT-
But he was at the Red Lion in January of that year and in 1861 he was living in a farm house in Upper Heyford so his stay at the Bell must have been very short.
As mentioned earlier, Mr T Turbitt was at the Red Lion, and Mr W Smith at the Bell in September 1864 at the time of the Heyford Harvest Home. Once again Richard Coggin's interest in the pub was for a very short time.
Little is known about The White Horse, it was not mentioned in the early Victualler Recognizances book and it had closed by 1887. Richard COGGINS was a publican in 1840, 1842 and 1844 when he had three sons baptised in Lower Heyford, but on the 1841 census he was a boatman, which does not give which pub he was associated with.
The following report from the Oxford Chronicle and Reading Gazette 1 January 1848 shows he was at the White Horse.
In the Affairs of Mr George Parker late of Steeple Aston … by meeting me at the house of Mr Richard Coggins, The White Horse Inn, Lower Heyford. On Monday next January 1st 1848 …
However he was not the licencee but could have been managing it for Edward Hazell while holding the licence for the Black Boy in Bicester. There is no evidence that he ever ran the Black Boy himself.
It was reported in the Banbury Guardian of 29 November 1849
“ … The White Horse Lower Heyford from Edward Hazell to Mr Richard Coggins. The Black Boy Bicester from Richard Coggins to Mr John Reymolds … ”
In 1851 Richard COGGINS from Caulcott was a victualler and Coal merchant there.
The History, Gazetteer & Directory of Oxfordshire 1852 by Robert Gardner has “Coggins Richard, (and corn and coal merchant , wharfinger &c.)” under Farmers of Lower Heyford.
In the description of Lower Heyford Gardner says
“...The railway company have a station here, and there is an excellent wharf on the canal, belonging to Mr Richard Coggins, so that the town affords abundant facilities for the transit of passengers, and agricultural produce...” (there is no mention of either pubs.)
In 1861 John HEYWARD a carrier was the publican at the White Horse. He died Jan 24 1865. His death is mentioned in Dew’s Diary where he indicates that the White Horse had a bad reputation.
In the Oxford Chronicle and Reading Gazette of 24 December 1864
PETTY SESSIONS DEC 1864
George Larner of Lower Heyford was charged by Mr. Price of the White Horse Inn, with having assaulted him and damaged property to the amount 3s. 6d. Mr. G. Coggins, parish constable, said the defendant was very noisy, and he assisted Mr. Price in turning him out of the house. Convicted and fined 5s damages 3s.6d. Costs 10s. police fees 4s.
This pub had a good reputation and had a much used assembly room attached. The assembly room housed charity balls and feasts which are reported in the newspapers but none of the reports mention the publican or caterers. There is only the one reference to Richard COGGINS when the licence was transferred which is quoted above.
As discussed earlier, Richard COGGINS was more likely to have already been living at the White Horse at the time of these transfers. John Reynolds was a butcher/publican and continued to live at the Black Boy even after he relinquished the licence.
Bicester Herald reported on 18 October 1867
“The Black Boy Gone -
Extracts from Dew’s diaries are in Oxfordshire Country Life in the 1860s. The Early Diaries of George James Dew (1846-
The Black horse was once three cottages dating back to 1692 (History of Banbury Road Kidlington John Amor) and first mentioned as the Black horse in 1753.
Peter SODEN  was a blacksmith and publican at the Blackhorse in 1871. Sadly his young wife died in 1872 leaving a young son. About the same time the following advertisement appeared in Jackson’s Oxford Journal for April 20 1872
"KidlingtonThe useful household furniture, stock in trade, useful billiard table etc. etc., of Mr Peter Soden, blacksmith, under distress for rent, at the Black Horse Inn,
To be sold by Auction by J & W Scroggs,
On Monday April 20th at Twelve o'clock"
Nothing else has been found of Peter after this. His son went first to live with Peter’s sister and brother in law George and Sarah WAGSTAFF and was eventually adopted by them. George WAGSTAFF  had been the innkeeper of The Flying Horse Brackley in 1861.
Peter’s cousin Joseph HONOR  took over the Black Horse. Joseph continued working as a painter, plumber and glazier while at the pub. Joseph died in 1888 and his wife Sarah  was the publican in 1891. She left about 1894 and died in Woodstock District in 1901..
Between 1754 and 1765 William TAUNT  is listed in the Victuallers Recognizances (QSD/1 1753-
James Walter GILES  was the Innkeeper of this pub in 1901. He was born 1874 in Woodstock a descendant of Martin GILES and Mary nee FAULKNER through Thomas (born 1774) and married Mary COGGINS  in 1897 when he used the name Walter J GILES. The pub is in an area famous for blanket weaving so the name probably reflects the sheep shearers of the district.